The Science of Summer: Exploring the Wonders of the Sun, Seasons and More!

Make the most of your summer term with these fun experiments

As summer approaches, you have a wonderful opportunity to engage your students in the fascinating science behind this sunny season. In this blog post, we will dive into the science of summer and provide some exciting summer-themed science experiments that your pupils can enjoy. So, let's embark on an educational journey that combines learning and fun in the warm embrace of summer!

The sun takes centre stage during summer, bringing warmth and light to our lives. In KS1, children begin to learn about light sources and the importance of the sun. Reinforce their understanding by discussing how the sun provides heat, helping plants grow and enabling us to enjoy long summer days.

Experiment 1: Solar S'mores

Materials: Digestive biscuits, marshmallows, chocolate bars, tin foil and sunlight.


  1. Encourage students to design a solar oven using tin foil, focusing sunlight onto a central area.
  2. Help them assemble a s'more using digestive biscuits, marshmallows and chocolate.
  3. Place the s'more inside the solar oven and position it to catch maximum sunlight.
  4. Observe how the sun's energy melts the chocolate and marshmallows, transforming it into a delicious treat.
  5. Discuss how the sun's heat energy is harnessed to cook food.

Experiment 2: Sunbeam Shadows

Materials: Paper, pencils and a sunny day!


  1. Provide each student with a sheet of paper and a pencil.
  2. Ask them to place the paper on a flat surface and stand a pencil upright in the center.
  3. Instruct them to observe the shadow cast by the pencil.
  4. Encourage them to draw the outline of the shadow and mark the time.
  5. Repeat this process every hour throughout the day.
  6. Discuss the changing length and direction of the shadows as the Earth rotates and the sun's position in the sky changes.

Experiment 3: Cloud in a Jar

Materials: A clear glass jar with a lid, hot water, ice cubes, and a match or lighter (to be handled by the teacher).


  1. Fill the glass jar halfway with hot water.
  2. Place a few ice cubes on top of the water.
  3. Quickly cover the jar with the lid and wait for a minute.
  4. Observe condensation forming on the inside of the jar, resembling a cloud.
  5. Explain how the hot water evaporates, rises and then condenses on the cold lid, just like clouds form in the atmosphere.

Summer provides an excellent opportunity for you to delve into the science behind this vibrant season. By incorporating concepts from the KS1 and KS2 curricula, such as the power of the sun, the tilt of the Earth, and the water cycle, you can captivate your students' minds while fostering a love for science. Through engaging experiments like Solar S'mores, Sunbeam Shadows, and Cloud in a Jar, children can experience the wonders of summer firsthand. So, let the curiosity bloom, and embrace the sunshine-filled days as an opportunity for both learning and enjoyment in the world of science!